Infrastructure as Code

Key Concepts

  • Terraform: Infrastructure as Code (IaC) tool for provisioning, configuring, and managing infrastructure across cloud platforms and on-premises setups.
  • Kubernetes: Container orchestration system for automating the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.
  • Helm: Package manager for Kubernetes, simplifying the installation, configuration, and management of applications within a Kubernetes cluster.
  • Docker: Containerization platform for packaging, distributing, and running applications within isolated environments.

Workflow Steps

  • Dockerize Your Application
    • Dockerfile: Create a Dockerfile that defines instructions for building a Docker image containing your application code and dependencies.
    • Build Image: Use the docker build command to create a Docker image from your Dockerfile.
  • Write Helm Charts
    • Chart Structure: Create a Helm chart directory with the necessary template files (values.yaml, YAML manifests defining Kubernetes resources).
    • Templating: Use Go templating in your Kubernetes manifests to parameterize them, allowing customization during deployment.
  • Terraform Configuration
    • Providers: Define the Kubernetes and Helm providers in your Terraform code.
    • Kubernetes Resources: Provision base Kubernetes infrastructure (namespaces, service accounts, etc.) using Terraform's Kubernetes provider.
    • Helm Releases: Employ the Terraform Helm provider to manage the installation of Helm charts in your Kubernetes cluster.


  • Terraform:
    • terraform init: Initialize a Terraform working directory.
    • terraform plan: Preview infrastructure changes.
    • terraform apply: Apply changes and create or update infrastructure.
  • Helm:
    • helm create <chart-name>: Create a new Helm chart.
    • helm install <release-name> <chart>: Install a Helm chart.
    • helm upgrade <release-name> <chart>: Upgrade a Helm release.
    • helm ls: List deployed Helm releases.
  • Docker:
    • docker build -t <image-name>:<tag> .: Build a Docker image.
    • docker run <image-name>:<tag>: Run a Docker container.

Example Terraform Snippet

provider "kubernetes" {
  # ... cluster authentication details

provider "helm" {
  # ... cluster authentication details

resource "kubernetes_namespace" "myapp" {
  metadata {
    name = "myapp-namespace"

resource "helm_release" "nginx" {
  name       = "my-nginx-release"
  chart      = "./charts/nginx"
  namespace  =

  set {
    name  = "image.tag"
    value = "nginx:latest"

Important Considerations

  • Version Control: Store Terraform, Helm, and Docker configuration in a version control system (e.g., Git) for collaboration and change tracking.
  • CI/CD: Integrate Terraform and Helm into your CI/CD pipelines to automate infrastructure and application deployment workflows.